Renal tubule epithelia represent the primary site of damage in acute kidney injury (AKI), a process initiated and propagated by the infiltration of macrophages. Here we investigated the role of resident renal macrophages and dendritic cells in recovery from AKI after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury or a novel diphtheria toxin–induced (DT-induced) model of selective proximal tubule injury in mice. DT-induced AKI was characterized by marked renal proximal tubular cell apoptosis. In both models, macrophage/dendritic cell depletion during the recovery phase increased functional and histologic injury and delayed regeneration. After I/R-induced AKI, there was an early increase in renal macrophages derived from circulating inflammatory (M1) monocytes, followed by accumulation of renal macrophages/dendritic cells with a wound-healing (M2) phenotype. In contrast, DT-induced AKI only generated an increase in M2 cells. In both models, increases in M2 cells resulted largely from in situ proliferation in the kidney. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) signaling blocked macrophage/dendritic cell proliferation, decreased M2 polarization, and inhibited recovery. These findings demonstrated that CSF-1–mediated expansion and polarization of resident renal macrophages/dendritic cells is an important mechanism mediating renal tubule epithelial regeneration after AKI.
Ming-Zhi Zhang, Bing Yao, Shilin Yang, Li Jiang, Suwan Wang, Xiaofeng Fan, Huiyong Yin, Karlton Wong, Tomoki Miyazawa, Jianchun Chen, Ingrid Chang, Amar Singh, Raymond C. Harris
Integrins are transmembrane αβ glycoproteins that connect the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton. The laminin-binding integrin α3β1 is expressed at high levels in lung epithelium and in kidney podocytes. In podocytes, α3β1 associates with the tetraspanin CD151 to maintain a functional filtration barrier. Here, we report on a patient homozygous for a novel missense mutation in the human ITGA3 gene, causing fatal interstitial lung disease and congenital nephrotic syndrome. The mutation caused an alanine-to-serine substitution in the integrin α3 subunit, thereby introducing an N-glycosylation motif at amino acid position 349. We expressed this mutant form of ITGA3 in murine podocytes and found that hyperglycosylation of the α3 precursor prevented its heterodimerization with β1, whereas CD151 association with the α3 subunit occurred normally. Consequently, the β1 precursor accumulated in the ER, and the mutant α3 precursor was degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Thus, these findings uncover a gain-of-glycosylation mutation in ITGA3 that prevents the biosynthesis of functional α3β1, causing a fatal multiorgan disorder.
Nayia Nicolaou, Coert Margadant, Sietske H. Kevelam, Marc R. Lilien, Michiel J.S. Oosterveld, Maaike Kreft, Albertien M. van Eerde, Rolph Pfundt, Paulien A. Terhal, Bert van der Zwaag, Peter G.J. Nikkels, Norman Sachs, Roel Goldschmeding, Nine V.A.M. Knoers, Kirsten Y. Renkema, Arnoud Sonnenberg
DC-mediated NKT cell activation is critical in initiating the immune response following kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), which mimics human acute kidney injury (AKI). Adenosine is an important antiinflammatory molecule in tissue inflammation, and adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonists protect kidneys from IRI through their actions on leukocytes. In this study, we showed that mice with A2AR-deficient DCs are more susceptible to kidney IRI and are not protected from injury by A2AR agonists. In addition, administration of DCs treated ex vivo with an A2AR agonist protected the kidneys of WT mice from IRI by suppressing NKT production of IFN-γ and by regulating DC costimulatory molecules that are important for NKT cell activation. A2AR agonists had no effect on DC antigen presentation or on Tregs. We conclude that ex vivo A2AR–induced tolerized DCs suppress NKT cell activation in vivo and provide a unique and potent cell-based strategy to attenuate organ IRI.
Li Li, Liping Huang, Hong Ye, Steven P. Song, Amandeep Bajwa, Sang Ju Lee, Emily K. Moser, Katarzyna Jaworska, Gilbert R. Kinsey, Yuan J. Day, Joel Linden, Peter I. Lobo, Diane L. Rosin, Mark D. Okusa
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations to PKD1 or PKD2, triggering progressive cystogenesis and typically leading to end-stage renal disease in midlife. The phenotypic spectrum, however, ranges from in utero onset to adequate renal function at old age. Recent patient data suggest that the disease is dosage dependent, where incompletely penetrant alleles influence disease severity. Here, we have developed a knockin mouse model matching a likely disease variant, PKD1 p.R3277C (RC), and have proved that its functionally hypomorphic nature modifies the ADPKD phenotype. While Pkd1+/null mice are normal, Pkd1RC/null mice have rapidly progressive disease, and Pkd1RC/RC animals develop gradual cystogenesis. These models effectively mimic the pathophysiological features of in utero–onset and typical ADPKD, respectively, correlating the level of functional Pkd1 product with disease severity, highlighting the dosage dependence of cystogenesis. Additionally, molecular analyses identified p.R3277C as a temperature-sensitive folding/trafficking mutant, and length defects in collecting duct primary cilia, the organelle central to PKD pathogenesis, were clearly detected for the first time to our knowledge in PKD1. Altogether, this study highlights the role that in trans variants at the disease locus can play in phenotypic modification of dominant diseases and provides a truly orthologous PKD1 model, optimal for therapeutic testing.
Katharina Hopp, Christopher J. Ward, Cynthia J. Hommerding, Samih H. Nasr, Han-Fang Tuan, Vladimir G. Gainullin, Sandro Rossetti, Vicente E. Torres, Peter C. Harris
Tight regulation of calcium levels is required for many critical biological functions. The Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) expressed by parathyroid cells controls blood calcium concentration by regulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. However, CaSR is also expressed in other organs, such as the kidney, but the importance of extraparathyroid CaSR in calcium metabolism remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of extraparathyroid CaSR using thyroparathyroidectomized, PTH-supplemented rats. Chronic inhibition of CaSR selectively increased renal tubular calcium absorption and blood calcium concentration independent of PTH secretion change and without altering intestinal calcium absorption. CaSR inhibition increased blood calcium concentration in animals pretreated with a bisphosphonate, indicating that the increase did not result from release of bone calcium. Kidney CaSR was expressed primarily in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL). As measured by in vitro microperfusion of cortical TAL, CaSR inhibitors increased calcium reabsorption and paracellular pathway permeability but did not change NaCl reabsorption. We conclude that CaSR is a direct determinant of blood calcium concentration, independent of PTH, and modulates renal tubular calcium transport in the TAL via the permeability of the paracellular pathway. These findings suggest that CaSR inhibitors may provide a new specific treatment for disorders related to impaired PTH secretion, such as primary hypoparathyroidism.
Alexandre Loupy, Suresh Krishna Ramakrishnan, Bharath Wootla, Régine Chambrey, Renaud de la Faille, Soline Bourgeois, Patrick Bruneval, Chantal Mandet, Erik Ilso Christensen, Hélène Faure, Lydie Cheval, Kamel Laghmani, Corinne Collet, Dominique Eladari, Robert H. Dodd, Martial Ruat, Pascal Houillier
A common renal complication of multiple myeloma is “myeloma kidney,” a condition also known as cast nephropathy. The renal lesions (casts) are directly related to the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs), which coprecipitate with Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THP) in the lumen of the distal nephron, obstructing tubular fluid flow. Here, we report that analysis of the binding interaction between FLCs and THP demonstrates that the secondary structure and key amino acid residues on the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of FLCs are critically important determinants of the molecular interaction with THP. The findings permitted development of a cyclized competitor peptide that demonstrated strong inhibitory capability in the binding of FLCs to THP in vitro. When used in a rodent model of cast nephropathy, this cyclized peptide construct served as an effective inhibitor of intraluminal cast formation and prevented the functional manifestations of acute kidney injury in vivo. These experiments provide proof of concept that intraluminal cast formation is integrally involved in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury from cast nephropathy. Further, the data support a clinically relevant approach to the management of renal failure in the setting of multiple myeloma.
Wei-Zhong Ying, Christopher E. Allen, Lisa M. Curtis, Kristal J. Aaron, Paul W. Sanders
A complex biologic network regulates kidney perfusion under physiologic conditions. This system is profoundly perturbed following renal ischemia, a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) — a life-threatening condition that frequently complicates the care of hospitalized patients. Therapeutic approaches to prevent and treat AKI are extremely limited. Better understanding of the molecular pathways promoting postischemic reflow could provide new candidate targets for AKI therapeutics. Due to its role in adapting tissues to hypoxia, we hypothesized that extracellular adenosine has a regulatory function in the postischemic control of renal perfusion. Consistent with the notion that equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) terminate adenosine signaling, we observed that pharmacologic ENT inhibition in mice elevated renal adenosine levels and dampened AKI. Deletion of the ENTs resulted in selective protection in Ent1–/– mice. Comprehensive examination of adenosine receptor–knockout mice exposed to AKI demonstrated that renal protection by ENT inhibitors involves the A2B adenosine receptor. Indeed, crosstalk between renal Ent1 and Adora2b expressed on vascular endothelia effectively prevented a postischemic no-reflow phenomenon. These studies identify ENT1 and adenosine receptors as key to the process of reestablishing renal perfusion following ischemic AKI. If translatable from mice to humans, these data have important therapeutic implications.
Almut Grenz, Jessica D. Bauerle, Julee H. Dalton, Douglas Ridyard, Alexander Badulak, Eunyoung Tak, Eóin N. McNamee, Eric Clambey, Radu Moldovan, German Reyes, Jost Klawitter, Kelly Ambler, Kristann Magee, Uwe Christians, Kelley S. Brodsky, Katya Ravid, Doo-Sup Choi, Jiaming Wen, Dmitriy Lukashev, Michael R. Blackburn, Hartmut Osswald, Imogen R. Coe, Bernd Nürnberg, Volker H. Haase, Yang Xia, Michail Sitkovsky, Holger K. Eltzschig
The morphology of healthy podocyte foot processes is necessary for maintaining the characteristics of the kidney filtration barrier. In most forms of glomerular disease, abnormal filter barrier function results when podocytes undergo foot process spreading and retraction by remodeling their cytoskeletal architecture and intercellular junctions during a process known as effacement. The cell adhesion protein nephrin is necessary for establishing the morphology of the kidney podocyte in development by transducing from the specialized podocyte intercellular junction phosphorylation-mediated signals that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. The present studies extend our understanding of nephrin function by showing that nephrin activation in cultured podocytes induced actin dynamics necessary for lamellipodial protrusion. This process required a PI3K-, Cas-, and Crk1/2-dependent signaling mechanism distinct from the previously described nephrin-Nck1/2 pathway necessary for assembly and polymerization of actin filaments. Our present findings also support the hypothesis that mechanisms governing lamellipodial protrusion in culture are similar to those used in vivo during foot process effacement in a subset of glomerular diseases. In mice, podocyte-specific deletion of Crk1/2 prevented foot process effacement in one model of podocyte injury and attenuated foot process effacement and associated proteinuria in a delayed fashion in a second model. In humans, focal adhesion kinase and Cas phosphorylation — markers of focal adhesion complex–mediated Crk-dependent signaling — was induced in minimal change disease and membranous nephropathy, but not focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Together, these observations suggest that activation of a Cas-Crk1/2–dependent complex is necessary for foot process effacement observed in distinct subsets of human glomerular diseases.
Britta George, Rakesh Verma, Abdulsalam A. Soofi, Puneet Garg, Jidong Zhang, Tae-Ju Park, Laura Giardino, Larisa Ryzhova, Duncan B. Johnstone, Hetty Wong, Deepak Nihalani, David J. Salant, Steven K. Hanks, Tom Curran, Maria Pia Rastaldi, Lawrence B. Holzman
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a potentially life-threatening condition. It often occurs after gastrointestinal infection with E. coli O157:H7, which produces Shiga toxins (Stx) that cause hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal injury. Stx-mediated changes in endothelial phenotype have been linked to the pathogenesis of HUS. Here we report our studies investigating Stx-induced changes in gene expression and their contribution to the pathogenesis of HUS. Stx function by inactivating host ribosomes but can also alter gene expression at concentrations that minimally affect global protein synthesis. Gene expression profiling of human microvascular endothelium treated with Stx implicated a role for activation of CXCR4 and CXCR7 by their shared cognate chemokine ligand (stromal cell–derived factor-1 [SDF-1]) in Stx-mediated pathophysiology. The changes in gene expression required a catalytically active Stx A subunit and were mediated by enhanced transcription and mRNA stability. Stx also enhanced the association of CXCR4, CXCR7, and SDF1 mRNAs with ribosomes. In a mouse model of Stx-mediated pathology, we noted changes in plasma and tissue content of CXCR4, CXCR7, and SDF-1 after Stx exposure. Furthermore, inhibition of the CXCR4/SDF-1 interaction decreased endothelial activation and organ injury and improved animal survival. Finally, in children infected with E. coli O157:H7, plasma SDF-1 levels were elevated in individuals who progressed to HUS. Collectively, these data implicate the CXCR4/CXCR7/SDF-1 pathway in Stx-mediated pathogenesis and suggest novel therapeutic strategies for prevention and/or treatment of complications associated with E. coli O157:H7 infection.
Tania N. Petruzziello-Pellegrini, Darren A. Yuen, Andrea V. Page, Sajedabanu Patel, Anna M. Soltyk, Charles C. Matouk, Dennis K. Wong, Paul J. Turgeon, Jason E. Fish, J.J. David Ho, Brent M. Steer, Vahid Khajoee, Jayesh Tigdi, Warren L. Lee, David G. Motto, Andrew Advani, Richard E. Gilbert, S. Ananth Karumanchi, Lisa A. Robinson, Phillip I. Tarr, W. Conrad Liles, James L. Brunton, Philip A. Marsden
Podocytes of the kidney adhere tightly to the underlying glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in order to maintain a functional filtration barrier. The clinical importance of podocyte binding to the GBM via an integrin-laminin-actin axis has been illustrated in models with altered function of α3β1 integrin, integrin-linked kinase, laminin-521, and α-actinin 4. Here we expanded on the podocyte-GBM binding model by showing that the main podocyte adhesion receptor, integrin α3β1, interacts with the tetraspanin CD151 in situ in humans. Deletion of Cd151 in mouse glomerular epithelial cells led to reduced adhesive strength to laminin by redistributing α3β1 at the cell-matrix interface. Moreover, in vivo podocyte-specific deletion of Cd151 led to glomerular nephropathy. Although global Cd151-null B6 mice were not susceptible to renal disease, as has been shown previously, increasing blood and transcapillary filtration pressure induced nephropathy in these mice. Importantly, blocking the angiotensin-converting enzyme in renal disease–susceptible global Cd151-null FVB mice prolonged their median life span. Together, these results establish CD151 as a crucial modifier of integrin-mediated adhesion of podocytes to the GBM and show that blood pressure is an important factor in the initiation and progression of Cd151 knockout–induced nephropathy.
Norman Sachs, Nike Claessen, Jan Aten, Maaike Kreft, Gwendoline J.D. Teske, Anneke Koeman, Coert J. Zuurbier, Hans Janssen, Arnoud Sonnenberg